Convergence of wildlife crime with other forms of organised crime

Our report examines the cross-cutting nature of wildlife crime and offers suggested recommendations for law enforcement and policy makers to increase their focus on crime convergence to better protect our vulnerable wildlife.

A set of 12 case studies that illustrate a range of converging crime types and typologies from around the world

Examples include six cases involving the trafficking of terrestrial wild animals, three cases involving fisheries crimes, and three cases involving timber crimes.

Case Study 1

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Elephant ivory, rhino horns, illicit drugs


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGIES 
Opportunistic convergence and diversification of illicit commodities


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
East Africa

Case Study 2

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Tiger parts and human trafficking


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY 
Opportunistic convergence


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
Southeast Asia

Case Study 3

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Live reptiles and migrant smuggling


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY 
Unconfirmed – possibly complete “career shift”


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
South Asia

Case Study 4

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Live reptiles and fraud


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY 
Unconfirmed – possibly complete “career shift”


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
South Asia

Case Study 5

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Wildlife (various) and gold/precious stones


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY 
Diversification of commodities


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
Various

Case Study 6

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Rhino horns and various fraud and smuggling crimes


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY 
Opportunistic convergence


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
Europe

Case Study 7

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Shark fins and illicit drugs


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY 
Diversification of commodities


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
North America and East Asia

Case Study 8

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Abalone and illicit drugs


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY 
Transactional convergence of illicit commodities


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
Southern Africa

Case Study 9

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Fish and human trafficking/ modern slavery


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY
Transactional convergence


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
Southeast Asia

Case Study 10

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Timber and illicit drugs


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY
Diversification of commodities


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
Southeast Asia and South America

Case Study 11

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Timber, corruption, and fraud


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY
Embedded convergence where the crime types are inextricably linked


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
South America

Case Study 12

COMMODITIES INVOLVED 
Timber, corruption, and money laundering


CONVERGENCE TYPOLOGY
Embedded convergence where the crime types are inextricably linked


GEOGRAPHIC REGION 
Southeast Asia

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Convergence of wildlife crime with other forms of organised crime

In this report, we have combined our own data with information from open sources to contribute towards growing the knowledge base on the convergence of wildlife crime with other forms of organised crime.

Crime convergence should be further studied and integrated as part of the approach to tackle wildlife crime and organised crime more broadly, as improved understanding of this intersection can help to identify more strategic policy and law enforcement responses to address it.